What is a Concussion?


What Causes A Concussion?

concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury(TBI) caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body that may change how the brain functions.

Examples include:

    • – a blow to the body that causes the head and brain to move quickly back and forth, like with a whiplash injury or an explosion.
    • – rapid twisting or shaking of the head due to a sudden deceleration (a quick stop), like with a car accident.  Studies show that concussions occur with 30-40% of all car accidents. 
    • – a fall at home or work
    • – sports-related injuries


Interesting Facts

  • –  Loss of consciousness is NOT required for a diagnosis of concussion.
  • Many people assume that concussions involve a loss of consciousness, but that is not true. In many cases, a person with a concussion never loses consciousness.  AANS (Neurological Surgeons)
  • –  You do not need to have a bruise or bleeding from your head  to have a traumatic brain injury/concussion.

What Are Symptoms of a Concussion?


 –  Difficulty thinking clearly

 –  Feeling slowed down

 –  Difficulty concentrating

 –  Difficulty remembering new information


 –  Headache

 –  Fuzzy or blurry vision

 –  Nausea or vomiting 

 –  Dizziness

 –  Sensitivity to noise or light

 –  Balance problems

 –  Feeling tired, having no energy



 –  Irritability

 –  Sadness

 –  More emotional

 –  Nervousness or anxiety


 –  Sleeping more than usual

 –  Sleeping less than usual

 –  Trouble falling asleep

Source: www.cdc.gov/concussion/signs_symptoms.html


Did you have any of these symptoms before your accident?  If these symptoms started after the accident, this may indicate a concussion or a brain injury.

Headaches are one of the most under-estimated problems after an accident and may indicate a concussion.  If you find that bright lights and loud noises increase your headache, you may have a concussion.

What We Do To Help

After Accident Care utilizes the most sensitive diagnostic tests to help document that a concussion has occurred.  This includes ANAM, VNG, and balance testing.   We also have trained Physical Therapists that have expertise in treating concussions using various gaze stability exercises, vestibular adaptation techniques, and balance exercises to decrease your symptoms and help you return to your normal life.

Frequently Asked Questions

When can I play sports again after a Concussion

If you have a concussion after an MVA with persisting headaches and difficulty concentrating you need to tell your coach and see a physician. We at After Accident Care have detailed experience helping people both recover from concussions and return to playing contact sports. There are clear but changing guidelines in this arena.

Not only can we give real guidance on when and how to return to sports, we can help clearly identify if you have a brain injury. We use state of the art laser based measurement of eye movements to document brain injury. And we can show return to normal.

The vestibulonystagmogram (VNG) provides real and objective documentation of brain injury.

The VNG measures our eye movement as we look at things. If we watch something and turn our body, the eyes move in both a coordinated and precise way.  The VNG measures with laser precision the subtle shaking of our eyes after a brain injury. The resulting measurements provide a way to document injury and recovery.

The “shark” in the water continues to be progressive early dementia, like Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and anxiety-depression. Yes, a single concussion can change our brain to begin premature dementia.

The use of these modern tests will help us identify better treatments to prevent progressive dementia.    

Dr. Changaris offers the most modern and reliable diagnostic tests for concussion, including the Videonystagmogram.

Normally, our eyes move in the same direction and at the same time when tracking an object.  For example, imagine watching a tennis match.  Under normal conditions, our eyes will smoothly follow the ball as it goes from one side of the court to the other side.  After an accident resulting in a concussion, our eyes which are controlled by the brainstem, cannot smoothly track objects causing headaches and dizziness.  Our ability to maintain focus on an object when our head is moving also becomes affected causing similar symptoms.  In other instances, tiny “crystals” in our inner ear become dislodged after an accident causing severe spinning sensations and nausea.  This is observed by erratic twitching and rolling of the eyes with certain head positions.  The ways our eyes move under specific conditions tells us if a patient has suffered a concussion, and the direction of eye movement can help diagnose where the problem originates as well as how to rehabilitate the patient.  Our Videonystagmogram (VNG) uses laser precision to track eye movements and help diagnose these conditions.

Norma_ Eye_Movement


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Suite 103,
Louisville, KY 40204

502 584 6852

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